The road is expected not only to provide a structural carriageway for the traffic but also to provide necessary information, direction and safety environment to the road users. To fulfill above objectives, a road is to be furnished with necessary road furniture and appurtenances to ensure a safe and smooth passage along and across the road. Such essentially required road furniture and appurtenances are broadly identified as:
- road signs;
- road markings;
- roadside safety/ crash barriers.
- road delineators;
- kilometre and hectometre stones;
- boundary stones;
- overhead traffic signs
- traffic impact attenuators
- Other may include, use of road humps and rumble strips and utility crossing ducts.
Road markings perform the important function of guiding and controlling traffic on a highway. The markings serve as psychological barriers and signify the delineation of traffic paths and their lateral clearance from traffic hazards for safe movement of traffic. Road markings are therefore essential to ensure smooth and orderly flow of traffic and to promote road safety. The Code of Practice for Road Markings, IRC: 35- has been used as the design basis.
Roadside Safety/ Crash Barrier
Road side barrier is a longitudinal system used to shield vehicles from hazards on the edge of the road, and is provided on following locations:
- embankment with high fills and steep slopes;
- near roadside obstacles;
- in approaches to bridge with height greater than 3 m;
- at specified locations for ensuring safety of bystanders, pedestrians and cyclists;
- deep ditches/ ponds along road;
• in approaches to narrow cross-sections (paved shoulder) in location of constraints/ existing bridges
- sharp curves, considered as 100m in rural areas and
• steep longitudinal gradients.
Bus Bay/ Bus Shelters
Bus stops with bus shelters would be provided at locations of settlements. Bus lay byes will be provided where ever the land is available.
Truck laybyes primarily provide temporary resting place for the tired truck drivers along the highway. These will be segregated from the usual travel way of traffic on the highway. These are generally provided at areas/sections of freight activity and generally at 30km intervals.
Delineators and Object Markers
Roadway delineators are intended to mark the edges of the roadway so as to guide drivers on the alignment ahead. Object markers are used to indicate hazards and obstructions within the vehicle flow path, for example, channelling islands close to the intersections.
Rumble Strips are formed by a sequence of transverse strips laid across a carriageway. Rumble strips are proposed in advance of Sharp curves, Transition zones (speed limit zones) and village/urban approaches. Proper sign boards and marking would be provided to advise the drivers in advance of the rumble strips.
Traffic Calming Measures
Traffic calming measures have the advantage of:
- Reduce and control vehicle speeds to a level commensurate with the activities taking place along the road
- Will encourage drivers to adopt a uniform speed without excessive acceleration and declaration
- Influence driver behaviour towards non-motorised users
Traffic calming measures, when proposed on roads passing through urban areas/ environment, whilst encouraging lower speed, will have reduced rate of accidents involving non-motorised users.
Objectives of Road Safety Audit
- To minimise the risk of crashes occurring on adjacent roads (especially at Intersections).
- To recognise the importance of safety in road design so that the needs and perceptions of all road users are met, and to achieve a balance between needs where they may be in conflict.
- To reduce the long term costs of a new road project, bearing in mind that unsafe designs may be expensive (or at times even impossible) to correct at a later stage.
- To enhance the awareness of road safety engineering principles by all involved in the process of planning, design, construction, operating, managing and maintenance roads and highways.
- To advance the awareness of providing safe road schemes for non-motorised as well as motorised users.
The Five Stages of Road Safety Auditing (RSA) a Road Project
- Stage 1: RSA during Feasibility Stage / Preliminary Design Stage as per IRC:SP:88-2019
- Stage 2: RSA during Detailed Design Stage as per IRC:SP:88-2019
- Stage 3: RSA during Construction Stage as per IRC:SP:55-2014 and per IRC:SP:88-2019
- Stage 4: RSA during Pre-Opening Stage as per IRC:SP:88-2019
- Stage 5: RSA during Operation and Maintenance for existing roads as per IRC:SP:88-2019