Uttar Pradesh, the most populous and fourth largest state of India. It lies in the north-central part of the country. Uttar Pradesh is bordered by the state of Uttarakhand and the country of Nepal to the north, the state of Bihar to the east, the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh to the southeast, the state of Madhya Pradesh to the south, and the states of Rajasthan and Haryana and the national capital territory of Delhi to the west. On January 26, 1950, when India became a republic, the state was given its present name, Uttar Pradesh (literally, “Northern State”). Its capital is Lucknow, in the west-central part of the state. Area 93,933 square miles (243,286 square km). Pop. (2011) 199,581,477.

Uttar Pradesh MAP


The state can be divided into two physiographic regions: the central plains of the Ganges (Ganga) River and its tributaries (part of the Indo-Gangetic Plain) and the southern uplands. The vast majority of Uttar Pradesh lies within the Gangetic Plain, which is composed of alluvial deposits brought down from the Himalayas to the north by the vast Ganges network. Most of that area is a featureless, though fertile, plain varying in elevation from about 1,000 feet (300 metres) in the northwest to about 190 feet (60 metres) in the extreme east. The southern uplands form part of the highly dissected and rugged Vindhya Range, which rises generally toward the southeast. The elevation of that region rarely exceeds 1,000 feet.

Indo-Gangetic Plain


Much of the area of Uttar Pradesh is covered by a deep layer of alluvium spread by the slow-moving rivers of the Ganges system. Those extremely fertile alluvial soils range from sandy to clayey loam. The soils in the southern part of the state are generally mixed red and black or red-to-yellow.

Alluvial Soil


Uttar Pradesh has a humid subtropical climate and experiences four seasons. The winter in January and February is followed by summer between March and May and the monsoon season between June and September. Summers are extreme with temperatures fluctuating anywhere between 0 °C and 50 °C in parts of the state. The Gangetic plain varies from semiarid to sub-humid. The mean annual rainfall ranges from 650 mm in the southwest corner of the state to 1000 mm in the eastern and southeastern parts of the state. The rain in UP can vary from an annual average of 170 cm in hilly areas to 84 cm in Western U.P. Given the concentration of most of this rainfall in the four months of the monsoon, excess rain can lead to floods and shortage to droughts.

Uttar Pradesh Climate

Ambient Air Quality

In general the state suffers from high dust problem. The state pollution control board conducts regular monitoring of ambient air quality in major towns of the state. The annual average ambient air quality in 2012 suggests that in all the major towns/cities, the concentration of PM10 was higher than the prescribed limit. Kanpur, Ghaziabad, Firozabad, Bareilly and Allahabad were among the most polluted cities as per the monitoring results of 2012. The concentrations of SO2 and NO2 in the air were found within the prescribed limit.

Air Quality

Water Quality

The monitoring of surface water quality for different surface water sources including major rivers and ponds are regularly conducted by the U.P. State Pollution Control Board. Almost all the surface water bodies, from where water samples were collected, show high biological contamination in terms of Total Coliforms.

Ganga water quality

Roadside Trees

In the state of Uttar Pradesh, linear plantation along National Highways, State Highways and Canals within right of way has been declared as Protected Forests so for felling of trees within existing ROW will attract provisions of Forest Conservation Act, and hence the case for diversion of forest area for non forest purpose will be applicable. The predominant tree species along roads are neem, teak, shisham, babul and eucalyptus. Apart from this mango, peepal, ornamental trees like gulmohar, amaltas, acasia, auriculiformis, etc are prominent species.

Roadside Trees


Tourism in the state is of growing economic importance. Many visitors flock to Hindu centres such as Varanasi, Allahabad, Ayodhya, and the Mathura-Vrindavan area; Buddhist centres such as Sarnath, Kasia (site of Kushinagar, where the Buddha died), and Shravasti and other historic places such as Agra, Lucknow, and Kannauj.

Uttar Pradesh Tourism


The state’s cities and towns are connected by a vast network of roads, including a number of national highways, and railways. Major cities in Uttar Pradesh are connected by air to Delhi and other large cities of India. The three inland waterways of the Ganges, Yamuna, and Ghaghara rivers also are an integral part of the state’s transportation system.

Transportation in UP

Social Profile

Uttar Pradesh constitutes one of the largest states in India and the state itself represents one of the largest self-governing areas in the world in terms of population. The State of Uttar Pradesh, whilst fourth largest in India in geographical land area, has a population that is estimated to be of the order of 195 million people, a figure superseded by only six countries in the world. According to the Uttar Pradesh Census 2011, the density of population in Uttar Pradesh is about 800 people per square kilometer which is way above the national average of about 380 and a major cause of concern. Hinduism is the dominant religion in Uttar Pradesh, followed by a majority of 80% people. Muslims forms the second largest community with a population of 18.4%. Rest of the population follows Sikhism, Buddhism, Christians and Jains. The scheduled castes are 17.5 % of the total population whereas scheduled tribes are less than 2 % of the total population. The literacy rate in the state has gone up in recent years and yet continues to linger at about 70% which is below the national average of 74%. The sex ratio is almost at par with the national average and stands at about 900.

Social Profile

Source: Census of India, 2011